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Many scientists anticipated that Feng Zhang of the Broad Institute, who showed 6 months later that CRISPR worked in mammalian cells, would share the prize. "It’s great for especially younger women to see this and to see that women’s work can be can be recognized, as much as men’s," Doudna said. Google Scholar, Heckl D, Kowalczyk MS, Yudovich D, Belizaire R, Puram RV, McConkey ME, Thielke A, Aster JC, Regev A, Ebert BL (2014) Generation of mouse models of myeloid malignancy with combinatorial genetic lesions using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. N Engl J Med 373:895–907. Cell 100:57–70, Harms DW, Quadros RM, Seruggia D, Ohtsuka M, Takahashi G, Montoliu L, Gurumurthy CB (2014) Mouse genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas system. doi:10.1038/nbt.3155, Fujii W, Kawasaki K, Sugiura K, Naito K (2013) Efficient generation of large-scale genome-modified mice using gRNA and CAS9 endonuclease. 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CRISPR-based genetic screening has revolutionized cancer drug target discovery, yet reliable, multiplex gene editing to reveal synergies between gene targets remains a major challenge. doi:10.1056/NEJMra050700, Nelson CE, Hakim CH, Ousterout DG, Thakore PI, Moreb EA, Rivera RMC, Madhavan S, Pan X, Ran FA, Yan WX, Asokan A, Zhang F, Duan D, Gersbach CA (2016) In vivo genome editing improves muscle function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. “We can improve the world around us in extraordinary ways,” he says, noting that a CRISPR application has already cured a person of sickle cell disease. Doudna and Charpentier—who is originally from France and at the time of the discovery worked at Umeå University—showed they could program a small strip of what they called “guide RNA” to carry a bacterial CRISPR-associated (Cas) enzyme to exact DNA sequences, allowing them to target specific genes. doi:10.1038/nbt.3471, Yoshimi K, Kunihiro Y, Kaneko T, Nagahora H, Voigt B, Mashimo T (2016) ssODN-mediated knock-in with CRISPR-Cas for large genomic regions in zygotes. “I’ve carefully avoided all this kind of brouhaha by focusing on inventions.” And, he says, Zhang is young. doi:10.1126/science.1247005, Shalem O, Sanjana NE, Zhang F (2015) High-throughput functional genomics using CRISPR–Cas9. doi:10.1186/s13073-016-0273-4, Miura H, Gurumurthy CB, Sato T, Sato M, Ohtsuka M (2015) CRISPR/Cas9-based generation of knockdown mice by intronic insertion of artificial microRNA using longer single-stranded DNA. doi:10.1002/humu.22961, PubMed  © 2020 American Association for the Advancement of Science. 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