Protection of Especially Vulnerable Groups, Module 5: Police Accountability, Integrity and Oversight, 1. How Cost Effective is Restorative Justice? In this evolving context, the Council of Europe promotes quality journalism that can increase levels of political knowledge, participation and engagement, and subsequently reduce corruption and encourage elected officials to represent their constituents more effectively. This view is supported in the literature, which holds that cyberspace and the Internet is regulated by, for example, laws, computer programming code, system architecture, and Internet architecture (Lessig, 2006); individuals, businesses, and organizations with or without some form of government involvement (i.e., a type of self-regulation, see Braithwaite, 1982); and individuals, businesses, and organisations sharing responsibility for governance (i.e., distributed security, see Brenner, 2005) (for more information, see Chang and Grabosky, 2017, pp. The Internet impacts global interests and its governance "includes more than Internet names and addresses, issues dealt with by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN); it also includes other significant public policy issues, such as critical Internet resources, the security and safety of the Internet, and developmental aspects and issues pertaining to the use of the Internet" (WGIG, 2005, p. 4). Even if countries agree on the stakeholders responsible for Internet governance, other barriers exist to universal Internet governance due to differences in countries' criminal justice systems and laws (see Cybercrime Other Factors Affecting the Role of Prosecutors, Global Connectivity and Technology Usage Trends, Offences against computer data and systems, Module 3: Legal Frameworks and Human Rights, International Human Rights and Cybercrime Law, Module 4: Introduction to Digital Forensics, Standards and Best Practices for Digital Forensics, Module 6: Practical Aspects of Cybercrime Investigations & Digital Forensics, Module 7: International Cooperation against Cybercrime, Formal International Cooperation Mechanisms, Informal International Cooperation Mechanisms, Challenges Relating to Extraterritorial Evidence, National Capacity and International Cooperation, Module 8: Cybersecurity & Cybercrime Prevention - Strategies, Policies & Programmes, International Cooperation on Cybersecurity Matters, Module 9: Cybersecurity & Cybercrime Prevention - Practical Applications & Measures, Incident Detection, Response, Recovery & Preparedness, Privacy: What it is and Why it is Important, Enforcement of Privacy and Data Protection Laws, Module 11: Cyber-Enabled Intellectual Property Crime, Causes for Cyber-Enabled Copyright & Trademark Offences, Online Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Conceptualizing Organized Crime & Defining Actors Involved, Criminal Groups Engaging in Cyber Organized Crime, Preventing & Countering Cyber Organized Crime, Module 14: Hacktivism, Terrorism, Espionage, Disinformation Campaigns & Warfare in Cyberspace, Information Warfare, Disinformation & Electoral Fraud, Indirect Impacts of Firearms on States or Communities, Module 2: Basics on Firearms and Ammunition, Illegal Firearms in Social, Cultural & Political Context, Larger Scale Firearms Trafficking Activities, Module 5: International Legal Framework on Firearms, International Public Law & Transnational Law, International Instruments with Global Outreach, Commonalities, Differences & Complementarity between Global Instruments, Tools to Support Implementation of Global Instruments, Module 6: National Regulations on Firearms, National Firearms Strategies & Action Plans, Harmonization of National Legislation with International Firearms Instruments, Assistance for Development of National Firearms Legislation, Module 7: Firearms, Terrorism and Organized Crime, Firearms Trafficking as a Cross-Cutting Element, Organized Crime and Organized Criminal Groups, Interconnections between Organized Criminal Groups & Terrorist Groups, Gangs - Organized Crime & Terrorism: An Evolving Continuum, International and National Legal Framework, International Cooperation and Information Exchange, Prosecution and Adjudication of Firearms Trafficking, Module 2: Organizing the Commission of Crimes, Definitions in the Organized Crime Convention, Criminal Organizations and Enterprise Laws, Module 4: Infiltration in Business & Government, Risk Assessment of Organized Crime Groups, Module 6: Causes and Facilitating Factors, Module 7: Models of Organized Criminal Groups, Adversarial vs Inquisitorial Legal Systems, Module 14: Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Module 1: What Is Corruption and Why Should We Care? What is Sex / Gender / Intersectionality? In order to ensure a sustainable, people-centred and rights-based approach to the internet, the Council of Europe engages in setting and promoting standards, building partnerships and fostering multi-stakeholder dialogue. Gender-Based Discrimination & Women in Conflict with the Law, 2. While it is the task of governments to protect human rights and the rule of law online, companies play a critical role in addressing today’s challenges of the digital age because they provide and control its infrastructure. African Declaration on Internet Rights and Freedoms of 2014; UNESCO, 2015; Morgus and Sherman, 2018, pp. For these reasons, a single entity cannot and has not been designated as an international governance body (Reich et al., 2014).